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D. S. Janik, Oahu County Water Quality Extension Agent, Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (USDA Cooperating), University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii.

The Kaiaka-Waialua Bay News is the official newsletter of the USDA Kaiaka-Waialua By Hydrologic Unit Area Project. The purpose of the Kaiaka-Waialua Bay News is to provide you with updates on projects, upcoming events, and research information. The Kaiaka-Waialua Bay News will also provide soil and water conservation ideas and measures, educational resources, and strategies for resource management and protection.

Kaiaka-Waialua Bay News is published quarterly by Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service with participation from USDA Soil Conservation Service, USDA Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, and the West Oahu Soil and Water Conservation District. Distributed in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, Noel P. Kefford, Director and Dean, Hawaii cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA. To cite this article use: Janik DS. Cultural Waters Run Deep. Kaiaka-Waialua Bay News 95 Apr (4) 1: 1, 3.

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Special Report

The mission of the USDA-funded Kaiaka-Waialua Hydrologic Unit Area (KW HUA) Project is to improve the quality of water entering into Kaiaka and Waialua Bays with emphasis on agriculturally-related non-point source pollution (NPSP). One of nine USDA objectives is identification and preservation of cultural/historical/archeological (CHA) sites.

"CHA sites are often located in water quality problem areas," says Dan Janik, Oahu County Cooperative Extension Service (CES) Water Quality Agent, "Early settlers selected choice sites usually next to bays and rivers." KW HUA contains 5 registered national/state CH sites and more than 50 important archeological sites.

Kaiaka Bay, a KW HUA community natural resources assessment and action (RAP) site [see Water Quality: Taking the RAP KW Bay News Vol 3 #4] includes Kapukapuakea heiau (Paalaa temple), Pohaku lanai (Lana-ike-Kane; Fisherman's Stone) and ancient 'salt pans.' Waialua Bay (Haleiwa Beach), a second RAP site, includes Puupilo heiau, Anahulu (Kamani) heiau, Haka-kau-Kanaka and Uko'a pond and wetlands.

"Many sites within the KW HUA have been and continue to be lost as a consequence of rapid agricultural and urban development," says Tom Dyer, Oahu Archeologist, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR). Though disappearing from sight, many such sites are still remembered in history and oral tradition. For example, Kapukapuakea, an ancient heiau of traditional menehune construction, located at the East end of Kaiaka Bay, is still pointed out though nothing remains above ground.

"It was an especially important heiau, because it was where the allii-nui (ruling chiefs) of Oahu were vested to rule," says Roy Alameida of Hawaiian Studies Institute/Kamehameha Schools (KS).

Kapukapuakea is said to have "worked with" other heiau, and is linked linguistically to a heiau on Molokai and Taputapuatea marae (temple) at Raiatea, Society Islands where, after 600 years of dispute, an ancient Polynesian alliance was recently reaffirmed. "Not much is known about connections between these three sites, though they share a lot in common," says Ruddy Mitchell, Archeologist/Historian at Waimea Falls Park (WFP).

"Some believe that on Oahu, Waialua was settled first," says Mr. Alameida. "The HUA contains not only a site for investiture of political power, but also Kukaniloko, the birthplace of rulers, one of only 2 such sites in Hawaii. It also contains an ancient, mile-sized aquaculture site {Uko'a ). Ancient Waialua was the oracle center, as well as the poi bowl ('breadbasket') of 0ahu."

"CHA sites provide a way to reconnect to our past and the environment. When managed under an appropriate Conservation Plan, these sites, like riparian zones, can greatly reduce NPSP," says Daniel Ko, KW HUA Team Leader at Natural Resources Conservation Service. "Land users with CHA sites have a responsibility to the community, state and nation to make sure both a CHA

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Preservation/Interpretation Plan and a Conservation Plan are being implemented to protect the site, water resources and public heritage. This project is cooperative, not regulatory. Project success depends on everyone's responsible participation," says Raymond Funakoshi, Chairperson of the KW HUA Local Advisory Committee.

"We all have much to learn from the early settlers and Hawaiians about our environment and ultimately ourselves," says Ms. Patricia Harlow, Program Manager for Haleiwa Main Street (HMS). HMS has traditionally targeted development of CHA interpretive sites as a key program activity within the KW HUA.

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